Minerals are nutrients needed by humans to support the process of growing and developing by the body in small or small amounts. Minerals have pure elemental composition and also simple salt which is very complex with several types of forms up to thousands of shapes. In defining the meaning of minerals, a lot is depending on where you look at the understanding of the mineral itself, it can be from pharmacy or geology.
Understanding minerals from the viewpoint of geology is an object formed by natural processes and in general, is solid and composed of several chemical contents. The study of minerals is mineralogy.
Mineral is an inorganic substance that is needed by the body in small amounts for various bodily functions. Vitamins are different from minerals, this is because vitamins are compounds that consist of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
Minerals are individual chemical elements. Minerals cannot be damaged. The mineral content of various types of food is usually called “ash”, this is because minerals are the products that are left from food after all the food has been destroyed at high temperatures or degraded by chemicals. In the human body, minerals make up about 4 percent of an adult’s body weight. The following functions of minerals.
Each person’s need for minerals varies and varies depending on age, health, sex, and physiological conditions such as pregnancy. Minerals have biological value that is important enough to maintain physiological and structural functions, prevent deficiencies, and prevent deterioration in health conditions. The following functions of minerals:
- Helps and maintains healthy muscles, heart, and nerves.
- Regulate osmotic pressure in the body.
- Produces various types of enzymes.
- Maintain, harden, and control bones and physiological processes in the body.
- As a catalyst for various biochemical processes that occur in the body.
- Muscle contractions and nerve responses.
- The formation of soft and hard tissue structures, in the working of the enzyme system.
- It helps in making antibodies.
- Maintaining the balance of water and acid-base in the blood.
- Arrange body, muscle, and teeth framework.
- As an activator that plays a role in enzymes and hormones.
- Maintaining bone health.
- Maintaining brain function.
- Prevents muscle aches.
- Play a role in the cell building process.
- It transports oxygen throughout the body.
Based on the amount of minerals needed per day, minerals can be divided into 3 types, including:
- Major Minerals
Major Minerals or major minerals are minerals that are needed in sufficient quantities, which is around more than 100 mg including magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, and chloride.
- Trace Minerals
Trace Minerals are needed at a rate of less than 100 mg per day. There are 9 types of minerals included in this category, including iron, fluoride, manganese, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, molybdenum, and chromium.
- Ultratrace Minerals
Ultratrace minerals are minerals found in the human body, but the amount of minerals needed for this type is unknown. These include arsenic, nickel, silicon, boron, and vanadium.
Mineral Needed by the Body
Calcium is one of the most important minerals as well as the most needed by the human body. Calcium serves to assist in the formation of bones and teeth and is also needed in the process of blood clotting, nerve cell signal transmission, and muscle contraction. Calcium can help prevent osteoporosis and calcium deficiency can cause osteoporosis. Of all the calcium found in the human body, 99 percent is located in the bones and teeth. Calcium also plays a role in reducing blood pressure and is also proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease that occurs in women.
Phosphorus is a mineral that is often found in a variety of foods including dairy products and meat. Phosphorus is very important to make bones and teeth strong and maintain healthy nerve function. Phosphorus is part of the structural framework of biological molecules such as DNA and RNA. Living cells also use phosphorus in cellular transportation.
Potassium is a mineral that helps in regulating the function of the heart, blood pressure, and nerves, and muscle activity.
Sodium is an element and also an electrolyte and salt component that helps in regulating cell fluid balance.
Iron is an important trace element and is needed in the production of hemoglobin, a component of red blood cells which then carries oxygen throughout the body. People who are deficient in iron will easily feel tired, this is because their bodies starve of oxygen. Iron is part of myoglobin, which functions to help store oxygen in muscles.
Magnesium is a flexible white metal that is quite permanent in dry air but rusts in humid air. Magnesium ion is important for all living cells. About more than 300 enzymes require magnesium ions. Magnesium is needed because it is used in the formation of proteins, bones, new cells, activating B vitamins, fatty acids, relaxing muscles, freezing blood, and forming adenosine triphosphate or ATP. Production and also use of insulin requires magnesium.
Sodium is a mineral found in the human body and various types of food. Sodium is a very important nutrient in maintaining blood volume, regulating water balance in each cell, and maintaining nerve function.
Absorption and also the Storage of Mineral in the Human Body
Food can provide the body to get a large supply of minerals, but humans can only absorb and use these minerals to vary. Mineral bioavailability depends on many factors, including many non-mineral components of food. Gender, nutritional status, age, genetic variables, and intake can influence mineral absorption and bioavailability.
There are also many different types of prescription drugs that are detrimental to the process of mineral absorption. Fiber components, such as phytic acid and oxalic acid, can limit the absorption of some minerals by binding to these minerals so they cannot be absorbed. For example in spinach which has a lot of calcium, but only about 5 percent of calcium can be absorbed than the bioavailability of calcium found in other foods which reach 5 percent. This is because it is caused by high concentrations of oxalic acid in the spinach.
High fiber intake that exceeds the recommendation of 25 g in adult women and 38 g in adult men per day can reduce the absorption of zinc, iron, and various other types of minerals.
Many minerals, such as iron, magnesium, calcium, and copper have the same size and electric charge which can eventually cause competition with each other for absorption. The excess of one mineral decreases the absorption and metabolism of the other minerals. For example, excessive zinc intake can reduce copper absorption.
On the other hand, a variety of beneficial interactions between vitamins and minerals occur at the time of absorption of nutrients and also metabolism. Iron, which when taken together with vitamin C can increase absorption. The active form of vitamin D can increase calcium absorption. Many vitamins require certain minerals to act as components in their respective structures and functions. For example, without manganese or magnesium, thiamin coenzymes are unable to function efficiently.
Minerals derived from various types of animal products are better absorbed than minerals from vegetable products. As with vitamins, the majority of all minerals are absorbed in the small intestine. Small amounts can also be absorbed in the stomach and some types of sodium and potassium can be absorbed in the large intestine. After the minerals are absorbed, some will flow freely in the bloodstream, but many are also carried by special transport proteins to the areas that need them or to storage.
Calcium is a type of mineral that travels as ions in the blood or is bound to blood proteins and can be referred to as albumin. Iron has a damaging effect in a form that is not bound so that when transported it is bound to proteins, such as transferrin.
Minerals can be stored in various tissues throughout the human body. Some types of minerals need to remain in the bloodstream to maintain balance and also the function of body fluids. Other minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, fluoride, and phosphorus are stored in the bones. Zinc, copper, iron and many types of trace minerals are stored in the liver. Meanwhile, other types of minerals are stored in muscle tissue, glands, or organs.
Too much mineral intake, especially iron and copper, has a toxic effect. So the consumption of supplements, especially trace mineral supplements can be potentially toxic. Therefore it is necessary to consider the amount of minerals contained in the supplement.
The potential for toxicity will increase when consuming minerals from supplements and food so that mineral intake can be excessive. Also, there are types of minerals that have toxic effects and become contaminants in some food products such as active metals, lead.
Vitamin is a complex compound that is needed by our body that functions to help regulate or process the body’s activities. Without human vitamins, animals and other living things will not be able to carry out living activities and vitamin deficiencies can lead to an increased chance of contracting a disease in our bodies.
Vitamins based on their solubility in water:
- Vitamins that are soluble in water: Vitamins B and Vitamin C
- Vitamins that are not soluble in water: Vitamins A, D, E, and K or abbreviated as Vitamin ADEK.
- source of vitamin A =
milk, fish, green and yellow vegetables, liver, red and yellow fruits (red chilies, carrots, bananas, papaya, etc.)
- Diseases caused by lack of vitamins A =
night blindness, cataracts, respiratory infections, decreased endurance, unhealthy skin, and others.
- sources that contain vitamin B1 =
wheat, meat, milk, yeast, rice, eggs, etc.
- Diseases caused by vitamin B1 deficiency =
dry/dull/ rotten skin, scaly skin, immune system reduced.
- sources that contain vitamin B2 =
fresh vegetables, soybeans, egg yolks, milk, and many others.
- Diseases caused by lack of vitamin B2 =
decreased endurance, dry scaly dry, dry mouth, chapped lips, mouth sores, and so on.
- sources that contain vitamin B3 =
fruits, wheat, yeast, liver, fish, kidney, sweet potatoes, poultry meat and so on
- Diseases caused by vitamin B3 deficiency =
disruption of the digestive system, ease muscle cramps and spasms, insomnia, fatigue, vomiting, and nausea, etc.
- a source that contains vitamin B5 =
meat, milk, green vegetables, kidneys, liver, green beans, and many others.
- Diseases caused by lack of vitamin B5 =
muscle cramps, difficulty sleeping, cracked and scaly skin, etc.
- sources that contain vitamin B6 =
nuts, corn, rice, liver, fish, mashed rice, yeast, meat, and others.
- Diseases that caused by lack of vitamin B6 =
pellagra aka chapped skin, muscle cramps, insomnia or difficulty sleeping, etc
- sources that contain vitamin B12 =
eggs, liver, meat, etc.
- Diseases caused by vitamin B12 deficiency =
lack of blood or anemia, easy to get tired/ lethargic/ weak, skin diseases, etc.
- sources that contain vitamin C =
guava or guava, oranges, tomatoes, pineapple, fresh vegetables, etc.
- Diseases caused by vitamin C deficiency =
easy infection of wounds, bleeding gums, pain in joints, etc.
- sources that contain vitamin D =
fish oil, milk, eggs, cheese, etc.
- Diseases caused by lack of vitamin D =
teeth will be more easily damaged, the muscle can experience seizures, abnormal bone growth which usually legs will form the letter O or X.
- a source that contains vitamin E =
fish, chicken, egg yolks, sprouts, yeast, vegetable oils, oatmeal, etc.
- Disease caused due to lack of vitamin E =
can be infertile both men and women, nerve and muscle disorders, etc.
- sources that contain vitamin K =
milk, egg yolks, fresh vegetables, et al
- Diseases caused by lack of vitamin K =
blood clots difficult to freeze when injury/bleeding, bleeding in the body, etc