Succession is a process of change, taking place in one direction regularly that occurs in a community within a certain period until a new community is formed which is different from the original community.

In other words, succession can be interpreted as the development of an unbalanced ecosystem towards an ecosystem balanced. Succession occurs as a result of the modification of the physical environment in the community or ecosystem.

Factors Cause Occurrence of Succession

1. Climate

Plants are not going to be able to grow regularly with the variation of the width of the time long. Fluctuations in the state of climate sometimes brought as a result of damage to the vegetation either partially or entirely. And finally, a new place ( empty ) evolved into much better ( power of adaptation large ) and change the conditions of the climate. Drought, rain snow/water and lightning often carry a state that is not favorable to the vegetation.

2. Topography

Factors Cause Occurrence of Succession

Succession occurs because of the changes in the condition of the ground, among others:

a. Erosion


Erosion can occur due to wind, water, and rain. In the process of erosion of the soil becomes vacant later occur deployment seeds by wind ( migration ) and finally, the process of succession begins.

b. Precipitation ( denudation )

Erosion which dissolves the layers of soil, in some places the soil was deposited to cover vegetation which there and damage it. Damage to vegetation led to a succession of repetitive back in place.

3. Biotics

Plant eaters such as insects that are a nuisance on agricultural land as well as diseases cause damage to vegetation. In the paddock grazing, forests are cut down, the harvest caused vegetation to grow back from the beginning or if damaged weight change of vegetation.

Factors That Influence the Succession Process

  1. The extent of the original habitat that was damaged
  2. The types of vegetation in surrounding ecosystems are disrupted
  3. Free transmitting seeds or seeds in the ecosystems
  4. Climate mainly the direction and speed of winds that carry seeds, spores, and seeds of another and precipitation of rain is very influential in the process of germination.

Steps and Characteristics of Succession

In succession occurs a process of change is gradually towards a balance. Clements arrange the sequence of events is rational to the 5 phases, namely :

Phase 1. NUDATION: the initial process of growth in open/empty land.

Phase 2. MIGRATION: the presence of the seeds of plants, spores and so on others.

Phase 3. ECESIS: the stability of the growth of the seeds of these.

Phase 4. REACTION: the process of rivalry or competition between the types of plants that have no /life, and its influence on the habitat local.

Phase 5. STABILIZATION: the process when the population of plant species reaches the endpoint of a balanced condition (equilibrium), in balance with local and regional habitat conditions.

Succession is further arranged on a series of routes of travel the formation of communities of vegetation transitional towards the community in equilibrium.

Clements gave the term to the level of community vegetation transition with the name of the SERE / seral, and conditions of the end of the balanced referred to as the vegetation climax. For different plant communities, they will develop in different habitat types.

The characteristics of public events succession

The characteristics of public events succession

1). Ecological diversity

The diversity of species/species generally increases during the succession because of the increasing number of niches in habitats that are available for the level of development of seral next.

Regier and Cowell (1972, cited by Park, 1980) stated that early succession is dominated by a little kind of organism that has a chance that high to grow without competition was effective with most major types of life over time.

According to Loucks (1970, cited by Park, 1980), the peak of the diversity of types of constituent community of forest occurred after 100 to 200 years after the beginning of a succession of secondary, and a diversity which decreases occur later in the process of succession.

Possible due to fire or also management by humans. By because it’s, Park (1980) concluded that he explained in a general increase in the diversity of ecological through a succession of ecology should be the elements of a key in all strategies ai management of forests.

2). Ecosystem Structure and Productivity.

With the process of succession in an ecosystem that biomass will tend to rise in tune with changes in the composition of the kind of pioneer who was replaced by a form of vegetation that is more substantial, and the increasing number and diversity of habitats. Productivity will also increase, at least during the initial succession.

3). Changes in Soil Characteristics.

As stated by Clements that the succession takes place in a progressive (more advanced) all the time, then the change in communities of vegetation also will modify the (causes changes ) in habitat and the environment locally. Looks a.l. the thickness of humus, moisture soil and climatic micro in understanding forest teak were mixed with various types of wood else is stratified.

4). Ecosystem Stability

Ecosystem Stability

In tune with the increased formation of organisms that exist as a result of the process of succession, then grow growing and die, already giving lessons valuable about the creation of the stability of the ecosystem.

Some opinions are still debated, which ranged between ‘ the stability of the ecosystem ‘ or ‘ the stability of the dynamic ‘.

The second opinion is grounded to the first that is simple with the succession as a whole has negated the changes ecological in a system, or only slightly occur an increase through the process of succession.

As for the opinion that the second that the speed of community enterprising back after the occurrence of some disturbance in the temporal generally decreased during the process of succession.

5). Levels of time (Time Scales).

Attention is also focused on the level of time that is associated with the process of succession, and the speed of the changes that occur at the level of sere.

It gives a diagnosis that is worth to indicators of the stability of the ecosystem that potential, vulnerability to cause the change, and the level of time that it takes ( in strategy management/management) to improve themselves as natural to the ecosystem are damaged.

Odum (1962, cited by Park, 1980) concluded that the time that is required to achieve the level of climax is related to the structure of the community.

In the ecosystem of the forest, the succession is much more time because the biomass that large accumulated all the time, and the community continues to change in the composition of species and regulate environmental physical.

What is Primary succession?

Succession Primer is a succession that occurs on land or territory which originally was not vegetated or land that once vegetated, but experienced a disruption weight so that the community of origin is lost in total or not is no longer living. Disorders are among others the eruption of Mount volcanoes, earthquakes earth, soil landslides, sediment sludge river, deposition of sand on the shore, and the overflow of mud hot.

What is Secondary succession?

Succession secondary is a succession that occurs on land or territory which at the beginning had vegetated perfect, then suffered the damage, but not to deprive the community of origin in total.

Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession

Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession


  • Primary succession occurs in areas that are barren or dead.
  • Land does not exist at the beginning of primary succession and the environment is not suitable for maintaining normal life forms.
  • No no humus at the beginning because the land does not exist.
  • Reproductive or propagule structures of the previous community did not exist.
  • Community Pioneer comes from the outside in the form of lichen crustose on a barren stone.
  • Seral community is many because it takes a long time to reach the peak stage.
  • Succession primary need of the time that long to completion can reach 1000 years or more.


  • Succession Secondary occurs in areas that have been deforested recently and inhabited before.
  • Land is present at the beginning of secondary succession with several organisms.
  • Topsoil was present from the start by the decomposition of previous occupants.
  • Structure reproduction occupants previously were present in the area.
  • The Pioneer community developed partly from previous occupants and partly from migrants.
  • Community seral more slightly compared with the succession of primary.
  • Secondary succession requires less time to complete, 50-200 years.

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