Difference between Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledon Plants – Plants are divided into two types based on the number of pieces found in the seeds. The term used to distinguish plants from the number of pieces found in their seeds is called monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants.
There are several differences between these two types of plants, one of which is the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous roots. Here are some differences between dicot and monocotyledonous roots:
Definition of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledon
Before discussing further the differences in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, one must first understand the meaning of what is meant by monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants. The following is an explanation of the meaning of monocot plants and dicot plants:
Definition of Monocotyledon Plants
Plants classified as monocotyledonous plants are plants that have a single number of pieces. The most specific characteristic that can be seen from monocotyledonous plants is seen from the seeds which amount to one, this is because monocotyledon plants only have one institutional leaf.
Monocotyledonous plants are classified as taxonomic groups in the plant classification system which has several names, including:
According to phylogeny analysis, monocotyledonous plant groups have monophyletic or holophytic properties. Monocotyled masses have their characteristics and characteristics, including:
- Consists of a single seed that has one institutional leaf
- It has fine-textured hairs, clearly visible segments, and no branches on the trunk
- Usually consists of a single leaf (not including the type of plant calm), has veins that are parallel or in the form of arches and has leaf fronds
- Flower petals contained in the flower
- Having stamens totaling three (multiples of three) contained in the flower
- On the trunk, there is a closed collateral vascular bundle
- Xylem and phloem are spread irregularly
- There can be no secondary growth which does not allow for an enlarged growth caused by the absence of cambium.
In a tropic country like Indonesia, there are many examples of monocotyledonous plants, which can be found in the types of plants that are food needs. Some Examples of Monocotyledonous Plants:
based on the explanation above, it can be said that the understanding of monocot plants is simply plants that have a single or not fragmentary number of seeds. Monocotyledonous plants have many benefits in supporting human needs. Because in general monocot plants play a role as a food source and meet many needs for vegetable fiber.
Definition of Dicotyledonous Plants
A plant can be called a dicotyledon plant, if it has double or two pieces of chips on its seeds. Plants that are included in the dicot category, can be seen from its most distinctive characteristics, which have parts that are in the middle of the seeds. Having flowers is also one of the characteristics of dicotyledonous plants.
Plants included in the dicotyledonous plants have a number of institutions leaves or commonly referred to as cotyledons. The formation of the leaves of the institution contained in the seed has been formed since the seed stage.
It can be concluded that plants classified as dicotyledonous plants generally have seeds that will be easily split into two parts. This is the main difference between monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants.
Dicotyledonous plants also have their own characteristics, namely:
- In the seeds, there are double or two pieces
- Having double or two, four, five or multiple flower petals
- Having cotyledons totaling two pieces
- Dancing and pinning is a pattern of bone leaves and marrow
- It has a cambium which can grow large on the stem
- Has a branched stem shape
- Parts of the transport vessels are arranged regularly in a circle
- Have an open collateral carrier file
The following are examples of plants that are included in dicotyledonous plants:
- Guava and guava
Some Difference Between Dicotyledon and Monocotyledon Roots
The root is the lowest part found in the body of a plant, generally, the roots are usually in the soil. This part of the plant plays a very important role, starting from the issue of absorption of nutrients to function as a barrier to the soil. The following are examples of differences in monocotyledon and dicotyledon roots.
Monocotyledonous plants have roots that are not riding, but roots that are shaped like fibers. Monocotyledonous roots have empulu which are located at the center, which in the initial stages are replaced by adventitious roots. There are several different parts of the root belonging to the monocotyledon type, namely:
- The epidermis is the outermost layer that is found in the roots and consists of a collection of parenchymatic cells.
- The cortex is the outermost part formed from parenchymatic cells, and the cortex in monocotyledon plants generally has a thickness that is greater than that found in dicotyledonous plant species.
- Endodermis is the root part that consists of cells in the form of barrels
- Xylem and Phloem which are transport networks at the root are formed into a ring pattern arranged alternately.
Types of plants belonging to the dicotyledonous plant group have radically formed roots, which will then change into a taproot and the composition consists of a mixture of lateral roots. There are two phases that will occur in the process of seed formation, namely the stages of the primary growth phase and the secondary growth phase.
Just like monocotyledonous plants, plants that are classified into dicotyledonous plants also have several different parts at the root, namely:
- Dicotyledonous plants also have epidermis, cortex, and endodermis which have the same function and structure as those in monocotyledonous plants.
- In general, dicotyledonous plants do not have pith or reduced number of pith
- There is a network of transport vessels, which are produced from the xylem and phloem processes separated by parkenim which act like a link.
- The formation of cells that grow inside and outside the cambium
- Between the xylem and phloem, there is a vascular cambium
With the explanation above, it can be concluded that the types of monocot plants and dicot plants are different types of plants when viewed based on the shape of the seeds. The following is a summary of the differences in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous roots:
- Monocotyledon plants have only one stage of the growth phase, namely the primary phase. Whereas dicotyledonous plant species have two stages of growth phase, namely the primary growth phase and the secondary growth phase
- Monocotyledon plants have adventitious roots and consist of roots that are shaped like fibers and do not have taproots.
- Monocotyledonous plants do not have secondary growth, whereas for dicotyledonous plants there is vascular cambium and cork cambium.
These are some examples of differences in the roots of dicot and monocots. The more knowledge about plants, the easier it will be to care for and maintain a type of plant. Especially when it comes to roots, where roots are the most important part of plants.
Main Different Characteristic of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
Characteristics of Dicotyledonous Plants
- Seeds in plants that are classified in dicot namely two pieces. This can be seen when the seed germination process splits into two parts.
- Bones in dicotyledonous plants are fig or pinnate leaves.
- Flowers in dicotyledonous plants have a number of crowns, the number of petals, and the number of flower stamens starting from multiples of 4 or 5.
- Dicotyledonous plants have a tapered root system that is formed from the branching of the main root (radicles). The roots develop from the main roots so that they are more sturdy and pierce into the soil. In dicotyledonous plants in general, the roots formed come from the lower end of the embryo or are called radicles. Radicles are forming apical meristems which then from root tissues.
- Secondary growth in dicotyledon plants generally occurs in secondary growth so that the body in plants is enlarged. Secondary growth in dicotyledonous plants will make the formation of wood and bark on each tree. The tree will be found in the diameter of the season that appears on the trunk. Growth due to the cambium makes it easy to see how long the trees last.
- Transport beams in dicotyledonous plants can observe the formation of rings (circular). The ring is organized so that it can easily observe the arrangement of the cortex and the parts of the stele that contain xylem transport vessels and phloem transport vessels. In the transport bundle consisting of xylem transport tissue and phloem transport tissue, the presence of leaf bones is found. Xylem transport vessels consist of a long array of vessels and tubular vessels. The xylem vessels have the function of transporting water from the root organ to the leaf organ. The water that is transported will replace the water lost during the transpiration process. In the phloem plants function to distribute or spread photosynthetic products in the form of food from the leaves to the stem so that all parts of the plant can get energy.
- Pollen in dicotyledonous plants has 3 grooves on each pollen grains.
- Wood vessels in dicotyledonous plants will be found cambium in root organs and stem organs.
Characteristics of Monocotyledon Plants
- Seeds in plants classified as monocotyledon ones are one piece. At the time of germination, there is no splitting.
- Monocotyledonous plants have parallel leaf bones or curved leaf bones.
- Flowers in monocotyledonous plants have a number of crowns, number of petals, and the number of flower stamens starting from multiples of 3. The number of parts of flower organs and leaf bones is not a definite differentiator in distinguishing monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants. This is based on the discovery of several plants that are incompatible with the general characteristics of both
- The root system in different parts of the monocot and dicot roots. Monocotyledonous plants have a fibrous root system formed from the side roots. The main root does not develop so rooting is weaker. At the root end, the institution is protected with coleorhiza. In monocotyledonous plants, roots that have formed come from adventitious root swelling.
Secondary growth in monocotyledonous plants does not occur in secondary growth. In this group, only long-term growth occurs. Cambium growth does not occur in monocotyledonous plants.
- Monocotyledonous plants have transport bundles that are spread on all stems without any special arrangement. Monocotyledonous plants do not have cortex in the constituent parts of the tissue. Xylem transport vessels and phloem transport vessels are formed based on meristematic cambium cells. The network of transport vessels formed from cambium tissue then experiences growth to the outside, resulting in the formation of bark or bark. In the formation of the inside will form a log or wood. The wood part is xylem tissue cells that have experienced death and have drained. The dead transport network will harden and grow densely due to the presence of lignin in the cell wall. Secondary thickening due to lignin thickening is composed of complex phenol polymers so that it is useful in making wood to be hard, dense, and brown in color.
- Pollen in monocotyledonous plants has a single path in each pollen grain. In dicotyledonous plants have 3 grooves on each pollen grains.
- Wood vessels in the structure of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous rods. Monocotyledonous plants are not equipped with wooden vessels. This can be seen or observed in the family of grasses or Poaceae.
Main Different – Characteristic Anatomy Dicotyledon and Monocotyledon
Anatomical Characteristics of Dicotyledonous Plants
The root in dicot is not found pith. The xylem vessels are in the middle, while the phloem vessels are in the outer xylem bounded by cambium. Xylem vessels have thick walls, little fiber, but contain a lot of parenchymal tissue. Perisikel in tissue consists of a layer of cells. The boundary at the tip of the root and the part of the calyptra is not clearly visible.
In epidermal tissue, it has a single layer with thick cuticle tissue. Found hair in the epidermis (multicellular hairs). Hypodermis generally consists of collenchyma tissue. The carrier file has no port. The carrier file has no envelope. Xylem vessels are small and have a lot of fiber, but only a small amount of parenchymal tissue. Growth of the xylem has a circular shape of the year which can generally be used to determine the age of growth in dicotyledonous plants. In the stem is not found phloem parenchyma tissue. In the secondary growth, lateral meristems will form.
Leaves in dicotyledonous plants have the form of dorsiventral tissue. The xylem vessels in dicotyledon leaves consist of many protoxylem and metaxylem. Stomata in dicotyledonous leaves are found in the lower epidermis (hypostomatic). In mesophyll tissue has palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma tissue. Dicotyledon leaf has a sheath of transport beams originating from the collenchyma tissue
Anatomical Characteristics of Monocotyledon Plants
Arrangement of monocotyledonous plant tissue from the outside in. The nucleus in large cells and well-developed parts of the pith. Xylem and Floem vessels are located next to each other with a large number of cells. Part of the root perisicle is in several cells. The roots in plants undergo lateral root formation. The roots develop cambium. The boundary at the tip of the roots and calyphras is clear.
Stems in monocotyledonous plants do not have hair in epidermal tissue. In the hypodermic or lower layer is generally a network of sclerenchyma. On the size of the carrier, the file looks different. The presence of protoxylem cavities on monocotyledonous rods. The transporter file has a protective file sheath protector. In the dicotyledonous tissue, there is a phloem parenchymal tissue. In the stem of monocotyledon plants generally, no secondary growth is found
Leaves including isobilateral. The vessels in xylem have 2 protoxylem and 2 metaxylem. Stomata have upper and lower epidermal tissue or amphistomatic. On the leaves, there are motor fan cells / bulliform cells in the upper epidermal tissue functioning as opening and closing the leaves (curled leaves). On the monocotyledon leaf, there is a sheath of a transport beam made of sclerenchyma tissue.