Definition of Carbohydrate

The body’s main energy source is carbohydrate; a nutrient found in food which is composed of elements of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).

Carbohydrate Source

carbohydrate source

There are so many sources of carbohydrate found around us such as:

  1. Sources of carbohydrate in seeds: rice, corn, wheat
  2. Carbohydrate Sources in Fruits: Bananas and all kinds of fruit that tastes sweet.
  3. Carbohydrate Sources for Roots /Bulbs: Sweet Potatoes, Cassava, Taro, Potatoes, and others.
  4. Sources of carbohydrates in the leaves: Green vegetables.

The function of carbohydrate for the body:

  1. As the body’s main energy source
  2. Energy reserves in muscles and liver
  3. To facilitate digestion
  4. As a natural sweetener

Division of Carbohydrate



It is a carbohydrate that can not be hydrolyzed into a simpler form divided into trioses, tetrosa, pentose, hexose, heptose. Hexoses in the body include glucose, galactose, fructose, and mannose.


Produce 2-6 monosaccharides through hydrolysis. Oligosaccharides that are important in the body are disaccharides that produce 2 monosaccharides when hydrolyzed, examples of disaccharides include sucrose (granulated sugar), lactose ( milk sugar ), and maltose (wheat sugar).

Hydrolysis of sucrose produces glucose and fructose. Lactose hydrolysis produces galactose and glucose. Maltose hydrolysis produces two glucose molecules. Polysaccharides Produce more than 6 monosaccharides through hydrolysis. Example: starch, glycogen, insulin, cellulose, dextrin.

Definition of Protein

one of the giant biomolecules, in addition to polysaccharides, lipids, and polynucleotides, which are the main constituents of all living things. In humans protein accounts for 20% of the total body weight.

The function of protein in the body

  1. Regulating the balance of acid-base levels in cells
  2. function The formation and repair of damaged cells and body tissues.
  3. Making hormones (hormone synthesis), which helps cells send messages and coordinate body activities
  4. Making antibodies for our immune system.
  5. Role in Muscle Contractions – two types of proteins (actin and myosin) involved in muscle contraction and movement.
  6. Making enzymes. An enzyme facilitates biochemical reactions such as binding to hemoglobin, transporting oxygen through the blood.
  7. As a backup and source of energy for the body. Three important types of nutrients function as a source of energy for the human body: Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fat

Protein source

protein source

  1. Meat and Poultry meat
  2. Fish and eggs
  3. Insect
  4. Dairy products
  5. Seeds and beans
  6. Soy products
  7. mushroom extract.

Distribution Of Protein

  1. Albumin
    Soluble in H2O and salt solutions. Example: Albumin, serum, Lactalbumin ( milk ).
  2. Globulin
    Slightly soluble in H2O, soluble in dilute salts, clump when half saturated with NH4-Sulfate. Example: serum globulin, egg globulin.
  3. Prolamina
    Soluble in ethanol 70-80%, insoluble in absolute ethanol and water rich in arginine.
  4. Histones
    Soluble in saline solutions rich in lysine.
  5. Glutelin
    Insoluble in the aforementioned solvents but soluble in acids or bases.
  6. Scleroprotein
    Insoluble in water or salt solutions. Rich with: Glycine, Alanina, Prolin.



Vitamin is a complex compound that is needed by our body that functions to help regulate or process the body’s activities. Without human vitamins, animals and other living things will not be able to carry out living activities and vitamin deficiencies can lead to an increased chance of contracting a disease in our bodies.


  1. Fat-soluble vitamins = Vitamins A, Vitamins D, Vit E, Vit K
  2. Water-Soluble Vitamins = Vitamins B and C

1. Vitamin A

Vitamin A is the first fat-soluble vitamin to be found widely. Vitamin A is also known as Retinol.
Function of Vitamin A: Role in Vision, and is one of the constituent components of eye pigment. besides the function of vitamin A also plays an important role in maintaining health, immunity, growth, and development and is very good for maintaining healthy skin.

Sources of Vitamin A

  • Animal: Liver, Egg yolk, milk, butter, and fish oil.
  • Vegetable: Carotene -> carotene sources are green vegetables, and yellow fruits such as carrots, bananas, and papaya.

Diseases Due to Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency can cause vision problems, night blindness, cataracts, and decreased endurance.

2. Vitamin B

There are several groups of groups of Vitamin B ( Complex B ) and in general, the benefits of vitamin B play an important role in the body’s metabolism, especially in terms of the release of energy when we do activities.

The role of Vitamin B in the body as a coenzyme compound that can increase the rate of the body’s metabolic reaction to various types of energy sources. Also, several types of B vitamins play a role in the formation of red blood cells. The source of B vitamins comes from milk, wheat, fish, and green vegetables. The types and groups of Vitamin B groups are as follows:

A. Vitamin B1

vitamin b complex

Another name for Vitamin B1 is Thiamine Hydrochloride -> one type of vitamin that has an important role in maintaining healthy skin and helps the process of burning carbohydrates into energy helps the process of metabolizing proteins and fats and many other functions of Vitamin B1.

Type of disease due to lack of vitamin B1:
  • Various disorders of the skin, such as dry and scaly skin.
  • The body can also experience beriberi
  • Impaired function of the digestive tract, heart, and nervous system.
Source of Vitamin B1

The types of foods that contain lots of Vitamin B1 include wheat, rice, meat (liver), milk, eggs, and beans.

B. Vitamin B2

Name another of Vitamin B2 is Riboflavin. The function of vitamin B2 in the body plays an important role in metabolism. Vitamin B2 acts as a component of Coenzyme Flavin Mononucleotides and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotides.

Both of these enzymes play an important role in the regeneration of energy for the body, and oxidation of fatty acids and also play a role in the formation of red blood cells and support the growth of various organs of the body, such as skin, hair, and nails.

Source of Vitamin B2

foods that can be a source of vitamin B2 include fresh vegetables, soybeans, egg yolks, and milk.
deficiency of vitamin B2 can cause decreased endurance, dry and flaky skin, dry mouth, cracked lips.

C. Vitamin B3

Another name for Vitamin B3 is Niacin. Vitamin B3 functions and plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy. vitamin B3 plays a major role in maintaining blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, and healing migraines. besides this type of vitamin is also involved in neutralizing toxins/poisoning the body.

Source of Vitamin B3

found in many types of animal meat foods such as liver, kidneys, fish, and poultry meat. Other food sources that also contain this vitamin include wheat and sweet potatoes.

Vitamin B3 deficiency

The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency can cause spasms, muscle cramps, digestive system disorders, vomiting, and nausea.

D. Vitamin B5

Another name for Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid. The function of vitamin B5 among others that play a role in enzyme reactions in the body and cracking reactions of food nutrients. other than that other functions of this vitamin is as neurotransmitters between the central nervous system and brain and help produce fatty acid compounds and body hormones.

Source of Vitamin B5

Animal foods, ranging from meat, milk, kidneys, and liver to plant foods, such as green vegetables and green beans.

E. Vitamin B6

Another name for Vitamin B6 is Pyridoxine —> is an essential vitamin for body growth, other than that the function of vitamin B6 is energy synthesis and also plays a role in nutrient metabolism and producing antibodies as the body’s defense system (immune).

Source of Vitamin B6

commonly found in rice, corn, beans, meat, and fish. Lack of vitamin B6 in big quantities will cause rough skin, insomnia, and muscle cramps.

F. Vitamin B12

Another name for Vitamin B12 is Cobalamin -> This particular type of vitamin is only produced by animals and is not found in plants or plants.

Function of Vitamin B12

It plays a role in the body’s energy metabolism, helps maintain and maintain nerve cell health, and also plays a role in the formation of DNA and RNA molecules.

Source of Vitamin B12

Eggs, liver, and meat are good food sources to meet the needs of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes the disease is anemia or lack of blood, skin irritation and tiredness.

3. Vitamin C

Another name for Vitamin C is ascorbic acid. -> there are many benefits of vitamin C for the health of our bodies. Among those that act as collagen-forming compounds which are important proteins that make up the skin tissue, joints, bones, and tissues supporting other organs. Also, Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant that can ward off various free radicals that enter our body to minimize the risk of various degenerative diseases, such as cervical cancer, breast cancer and various other types of degenerative diseases.

Also, vitamin C plays a role in maintaining body fitness and preventing aging, very good and beneficial vitamin C for skin beauty can prevent preventing various types of diseases and infections.

Source of Vitamin C

Oranges are found in many fruits such as oranges, tomatoes, watermelons, and other vegetables
Vitamin C deficiency can cause bleeding gums and joint pain, lack of body immunity. however, excess consumption of vitamin C adversely affects the kidneys and disorders of the digestive tract.

4. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is the type of vitamin that most influences the bone.

  • Sources of Vitamin D are found in many foods such as fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Skin cells will produce this vitamin when exposed to sunlight.
  • The benefits and functions of Vitamin D are affecting bone growth, helping the metabolism of calcium and minerals important for bones.
  • Vitamin D deficiency can cause abnormal growth of the body and legs, such as calf legs will form the letters O and X. Also, lack of vitamin D causes teeth easily damaged, and excessive loss of calcium and phosphorus in the bones resulting in fragile bone strength.

5. Vitamin E

The function of Vitamin E acts as an anti-oxidant and to maintains the health of various tissues in the body, from the eyes, red blood cells, liver and skin tissue. because that Vitamin E can inhibit and prevent premature aging.
Sources of Vitamin E are abundant in fish, chicken, egg yolks, yeast, and vegetable oils.

Deficiency of vitamin E causes health problems that are fatal to the body such as infertility and miscarriage, consumption of vitamin E is essential for the body both for men and women and these vitamins affect pregnancy.

6. Vitamin K

One of the fat-soluble vitamins is the function of Vitamin K, which plays a role in blood clotting and affects wound closure.

Food Sources of Vitamin K

Green vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, liver, peas, and beans.

Vitamin k deficiency will result in difficulty in blood clotting during injury or bleeding.

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