WHAT IS ANTHROPOBIOLOGY?

Based on oxford reference, anthropobiology is the biology of human beings. In everyday life, of course, we have and often even find some animals that have some differences and similarities. Not only in animals, plants are eaten by most animal sightings also have the same, although the names are the same. The same plants can have white flowers, red flowers, high trunk, and some low trunk.

So it is with humans as God’s most perfect creatures. Humans on this earth are not the same. Try to observe the people closest to us. Family members are the people closest to us. Then compare yourself with your mother, father, and siblings! Is there the same among your family members? Is there a very striking difference between you and your family members? Why aren’t we the same as mom and dad? How can that happen?

At birth, people often guess, the newborn child is similar to his father or mother, or not similar to his parents. Even more harmful is that a newborn child can resemble his uncle or aunt. For people who give birth in a hospital, if a case like this happens, certainly will get an explanation from the office so that it does not cause prejudice against someone.

Explanation About Anthropobiology

Anthropobiology is the study of correlations of the development of human biological functions that affect individual behavior. Anthropobiology provides formulation of biological functions, one of which is endourology, namely the science of hormones and fluids in the human body.

Anthropobiology Scope

The scope of anthropobiology is to learn about:

  • Ways of thinking and behaving in society
  • The evolution of human beings
  • Anatomy of the human body
  • Cultural development and dissemination

Anthropobiology in Genetic Material

anthropobiology - Genetic Material

In the past, people thought that the nature of a person bequeathed to his descendants through blood containing shoots from various organs (pangenesis theory). This theory was issued by Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Therefore, someone is called Dutch-blooded to show that he is of Dutch descent.

That opinion is not true since Galton (1822-1911) through his experiments proved that the blood of a white rabbit transferred to the body of a black rabbit and vice versa, apparently did not bring up a striped rabbit (black and white). Another example that we can look at today is that statements or opinions are wrong, people who receive blood transfusions from other people, their nature does not reveal a new nature following the nature of people who donate blood. Finally, this theory was dropped.

Heredity is the result of a generative breeding that is preceded by the fusion of male gamete nuclei with female gamete nuclei. In the nucleus of the cell, there is a chromosome, and in the chromosome, there is a gene. Thus, the new individual resulting from generative breeding carries the properties of the two parents. Then what is meant by genes? What is meant by chromosomes? To make it easier to understand genetic material, let us consider the following description!

Genes

Genes are a unit of heredity that controls the characteristics of an organism. Some claim that genes are the substance of heredity that determines the characteristics of the individuals making up chromosomes. On the other hand, a gene is a hereditary unit (carrier) in the form of a specific segment of the ADN (Dioxyribo Nucleic Acid) molecule, generally located on a chromosome, and shows its expression in the form of visible and observable external appearance, usually expressed by a single letter symbol. It can be written with capital letters for genes that are dominant and lowercase letters for genes that are recessive. For example, genes for high (dominant) stem are written with the letter (T) and properties for low (recessive) stem are written with (r).

The number of genes in a living creature is very large, according to the number of properties it has. Each trait is determined by one gene. Genes occupy specific locations on chromosomes. The location of genes in chromosomes seems to line up at a place called the locus.

Chromosome

In 1879 Walter Flamming (1843-1915), a professor at universities in Prague and Kiel, introduced the term chromatin to describe material that looked like threads (fibers) in the nucleus. When colored, the threads are visible (Greek: chroma = color).

As for the term chromosome, it was only introduced in 1888 by W. Waldeyer (1836-1921). The term name comes from the Greek chromosome which consists of the word chroma which means color, and the word soma which means objects. So it can be concluded that the chromosome is a body/object that is easy to absorb colors when cell staining is done.

A young American, Walter S. Sutton (1876-1916) knows that between changes that take place on chromosomes (=chromosome behavior) and gene transfer according to Mendel there is parallelism. Therefore, in 1902 he formulated the theory of chromosomes, which among others stated that the factors inherited from his descendants (genes) were in the chromosomes.

A chromosome is an array of elements consisting of ADN and proteins found in the nucleus of animal cells or plant cells. Stem-shaped chromosomes can be straight or bent. On the chromosome, there is a centromere or kinetochore, which is the clear part which is the primary distortion located at the junction of the arms. The function of the centromere is related to the movement of chromosomes during anaphase so that the centromere is seen as the attachment of chromosomes to the cleavage spindle. In general, chromosomes only have one centromere (monocentric), but there may also be chromosomes that have two centromeres (dysenteric), and maybe even polycentric ones.

Chromosomes are only visible when the cell will divide. At that time, the chromosomes duplicate to form two chicks that are still bound to one another in the centromere. Each chick of chromosomes are called chromatids.

The body of living things is composed of cells of various shapes and sizes. All cells that make up the body of living things, except sex cells or germ cells (gametes) are called somatic cells. Germ cells or gametes are sex cells of an organism, such as the ovum and sperm. In one cell of the body, there is a pair of chromosomes received from both parents or parents.

This pair of chromosomes is called a homologous chromosome. One part is received from the male parent and one part is received from the female parent. Therefore the number of chromosomes in a cell is called a diploid (denoted by 2n). While sex cells only contain half of the number of body cells (denoted by n) which are haploid. As a result of the process of fertilization of the ovum nucleus by the sperm nucleus, a zygote is formed. The zygote gets as many chromosomes from the sperm nucleus as n chromosomes and the ovum nuclei as many as n chromosomes.

Therefore, the zygote has diploid body cells (2n chromosomes).

Sach human cell has 46 pieces or 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of the 46 chromosomes, 23 chromosomes came from the father and 23 chromosomes came from the mother. Cells that carry 23 chromosomes from both father and mother are called sex cells.

Based on its role, chromosomes can be divided into two, namely the body chromosomes ( autosomes ) and genital chromosomes ( gonosomes ). Autosomes are chromosomes that regulate the body’s characteristics of living things and are not involved in determining sex. Autosomes are symbolized by A. Gonosomes are chromosomes that determine sex. Gonosomes consist of two kinds, namely the X chromosome which determines the sex of the female and the Y chromosome which determines the sex of the male.

Humans and most mammals have a pair of gonosomes. Normally, a woman’s body has a pair of X (XX) chromosomes, while a normal male has one X chromosome and one Y (XY) chromosome. Thus, the chromosome composition of a normal woman’s cell body can be written with the formula 44A + XX or 22AA + XX, whereas for normal men, the chromosome composition of the body cell can be written with the formula 44A + XY or 22AA + XY.

The Mechanism of Inheritance in Human Nature According to Mendel’s Law

Anthropobiology - Mendel's Law
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One branch of biology that studies inheritance is genetics. Genetic science developed very rapidly since the discovery of the theory of inheritance by a monk in a monastery in Brunn, Austria named Gregor Johann Mendel, hereinafter this figure was called the Father of Genetics.

Mendel was the first to conduct a cross-marital trial. In his experiments, Mendel crossed several types of peas or peas ( Pisum sativum ) in the monastery garden. In the garden there are a lot of varieties of Kapri beans, some are white and red, some are round and wrinkled seeds, and some are high and low trunked.

Mendel chose peas for his research because they have the following properties :

  1. It has perfect flowers that can pollinate themselves.
  2. It can easily be cross-pollinated.
  3. Their life span is not long, so they soon produce offspring.
  4. Has a striking pair of traits.

One of Mendel’s experiments was to eliminate the pure- furry Capri plants with pure fur lines and vice versa. Pure lines are plants that pollinate themselves and produce offspring with traits such as the parent even though they are replanted several times, and have the same gene pairs (alleles), which are dominant or recessive only. There is also an opinion which states that pure strain is a population consisting of genetically identical individuals (homozygotes) as a result of inbreeding or family marriage. The two opinions above have one common, namely the homozygous genetic makeup.

The crossing of two individuals by crossing each plant pollen from one plant to another is called a reciprocal crossing. In other words, the reciprocal crossing is a cross between two individuals who each act as a pollen contributor. To prevent self-pollination, Mendel removes pollen from flowers that will be sprinkled with other flower pollen since the flower is still in the shape of a bud.

Mendel conducted this experiment repeatedly and the results were carefully recorded. Experiments were also carried out with the nature of the peas which have other striking properties. For example, the nature of the color of red flowers and the nature of white flowers, the nature of high stems with low stems.

Mendel conducted many experiments on peanut plants that have a variety of different properties. The results of the experiment were formulated into a hypothesis (semester conjecture). This hypothesis is based on facts from experiments in crossbreeding of peas. The hypotheses in question are as follows:

  1. In each organism, there is a pair of factors that control certain traits. A pair of these factors are now called genes.
  2. Dominant genes will defeat recessive genes. The dominant principle is shown by the peas (F 1 ) with the Mm genotype appear to be red flowering.
  3. The first offspring (F 1 ) with the Mm genotype, produces two kinds of gametes that are the same amount. For example: if 50 pollen is produced, 25 pollen has genotype M and the other 25 pollen has genotype m. Likewise in the egg cell. This happens because at the time of the formation of gamete cells the Mm gene pair separates freely. As a result of each sex cell (pollen or egg) only gets one gene, namely M or m. This event is hereinafter referred to as the principle of free separation.

From the above hypothesis, Mendel then formulated a principle relating to inheritance, hereinafter referred to as Mendel’s law (Mendelism), as follows:

Mendel’s Law 1

The principle of separating freely (segregation). During gamete formation, each allele is passed down freely to each gamete. This occurs in monohybrid crosses

Mendel’s Law – II.

The principle of pairing (merging) genes freely. During the formation of the gamete in F 1, the allele pair will look for a pair that is not the allele. For example, from crosses parents with two different properties (dihybrid) obtained F 1 genotype BBKK. In the formation of gametes, B will not be paired with b but B will be paired with K or k so that the gametes formed BK, Bk, bk, and bk.

Genes on the Y Chromosome

Anthropobiology - Y Chromosome
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The Y chromosome is the smallest in humans needed for sexual development and spermatogenesis. The Y chromosome contains very few active genes and most of its structure consists of heterochromatin. The heterochromatin region of a chromosome is a dark painted region (positive-heteropicnosis) in cytogenetic examination. Heterochromatin consists of two types, facultative and constitutive heterochromatin.

Constitutive heterochromatin is rich in repetitive DNA which contains very few structural genes and is very polymorphic. This region can be seen cytogenetically by the C-banding painting technique or referred to as C- positive bands. Half of the long arm of the Y chromosome is C-band positive and in humans, this region is very polymorphic.

A study of several racial groups reported on the size of the Y chromosome which varies between different individuals and ethnic populations. Cytogenetically, the size of the Y chromosome approaches the size of chromosome 22, although often the size of the Y chromosome is larger. One literature states that the estimated average size of the Y chromosome is 60MB. The Y chromosome which is a sex determinant in humans contains 58 million base pairs and constitutes 0.38% of the total DNA in cells.

Transcription factors in the short arm of chromosomes (SRY) play an important role in the formation of the testes. Whereas, the genes in the euchromatic region of the Y chromosome (Yq11) long arm play a role in normal spermatogenesis, namely azoospermia factors consisting of AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc.

Genes on the X Chromosome

Anthropobiology - X Chromosome
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The X chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes that determine in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). This is part of the XY sex-determination system and the X0 sex-determination system.

he X chromosome was named for a singular attribute by early researchers, which resulted in the naming of its partner’s Y chromosome, for the next letter in the alphabet, after which it was discovered later. The XX sex chromosome is one of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in women. The X chromosome includes more than 153 million base pairs (DNA building material) and represents about 5% of the total DNA of female cells, 2, 5 % in males.

Each person typically has one try of sex chromosomes in every cell. Women have 2 X chromosomes, while men have one X and one Y chromosome. Both men and women retain one of their mother’s X chromosomes, and women maintain both of their X chromosomes from their father.

Since the dad retains the X chromosome from his mother, an individual’s women have one X chromosome from her paternal grandma (the father’s side), and one X chromosome from her mother. Identifying genes on the chromosomes of each active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, estimates of the number of genes vary. The X chromosome contains about 2000 genes compared to the Y chromosome which contains 78 genes, from 20,000 to 25,000 genes estimated in total in the human genome.

Genetic abnormalities caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome are described as X related. The X chromosome carries several thousand genes, but only a few, if any, have a direct relation to sex determination. Early in embryonic development in women, one of the two X chromosomes is random and permanently inactive in almost all somatic cells (cells other than eggs and sperm).

This phenomenon is called X-inactivation or Lyonization and creates Barr’s body. X-inactivation ensures that women, like men, have one functional copy of the X chromosome in each cell of the body.

It was previously assumed that only one active copy was used. However, recent research shows that Barr’s body may be more biologically active than it was previously supposed to be.

This is theorized by Ross et al. 2005 and Ohno 1967 that the X-chromosome originated at least in part from the autosomal (non-sex-related) genome of other mammals as evidenced by the alignment between species of the genome sequence. The X-chromosome is mainly larger and has a more active euchromatin region than the Y chromosome of its partner.

Further comparisons of X and Y show the homology area between the two. However, the corresponding region on Y appears much shorter and has no preserved area in X in all primate species, implying genetic degeneration for Y in that region.

Because men only have one X chromosome, they are more likely to have an X chromosome that is associated with disease. It is calculable that concerning 100% of cistrons encoded by the X-chromosome related to the “CT” gene family, thus named as a result of the code for markers found in each tumor cells (in Cancer patients ) as well as in human testes (in healthy patients).

This gene found on the X-chromosome CT is estimated to reach about 90% of all CT genes encoded in the human genome. K arena relative abundance of them was, therefore, hypothesized that this gene (and thus the X-chromosome) provides the fitness of male human evolution.

Chromosomal Deviation Process

Anthropobiology - gene

Chromosomal aberration is a disorder in the normal chromosome content of cells and is a significant cause of genetic conditions in humans, such as Down syndrome.

Some chromosome abnormalities don’t cause illness in carriers, like translocation or inversion of chromosomes, although they can cause a higher chance of giving birth to children with chromosomal abnormalities. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes or chromosome sets, aneuploidy, can be deadly or cause genetic disorders.

In the nucleus of most living things, there are smooth, straight objects such as stems or curves and consist of substances that easily bind to the colors commonly called chromosomes and the substances that make up them are called chromatin. According to Benden and Boveri (1887) in Suryo (1986: 6), the number of chromosomes in the nucleus of different living things is different and the number for each living thing is constant as long as it exists.

In humans who are eukaryotic creatures have 46 chromosomes which are divided into 2 types:

  • Autosomal chromosomes are chromosomes that have nothing to do with sex determination or can also be called a somatic chromosome. There are 22 pairs.
  • Sex Chromosome is a pair of chromosomes that determine sex. One pair in number can be XX for female sex and XY for the male gender.

As is known, most living things are diploid (2n) so that during the formation of gametes (gametogenesis) meiosis (reduction division) takes place. Pair of chromosomes in gametangium stem cells in normal circumstances would be split so that gametes have half the number of chromosomes of the individual.

However, this event does not always occur, sometimes there are abnormalities at the time of the separation event or when the crossing occurs. This will result in a chromosomal abnormality commonly referred to as chromosomal aberration. According to Kimball (1991: 239) chromosomal abnormalities or aberrations are divided into 2 major groups :

1. Chromosomal aberrations that occur due to changes in the number of chromosomes

Under normal circumstances, the number of chromosomes an individual has is stable, not easily changed. However, due to abnormalities such as nondisjunction or due to induction that is intentionally required such as treatment using certain chemicals, the number of chromosomes can change. Examples of these events are aneuploidy (Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, Patau’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, etc.) and euploidy.

2. Chromosomal aberrations that occur due to changes in chromosome structure.

Changes in the structure of chromosomes usually occur due to the use of strong enough rays, such as X-rays, cyan ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation. As a result of treatment with strong light, the chromosomes will break. In the broken part, there was a wound, so that the injured party did not have telomeres.

Because telomeres whose function normally blocks the chromosomes that are connected at the ends are absent, the broken chromosomes can now be joined by other chromosomes. As a result, chromosome mutations occur in individuals

Abnormalities Due to Chromosomal Abnormalities

Some examples of abnormalities due to chromosomal abnormalities :

Cri du chat

Cri du chat
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which is caused by the removal of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. Affected individuals have wide-set eyes, small heads, and jaws, and are mental enough to be very retarded and very short.

Wolf – Hirschhorn syndrome

Hirschhorn Syndrome
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Which is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome four. It is characterized by heavy and severe growth retardation for deep mental retardation.

Down syndrome

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usually caused by an additional copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). Characteristics include muscle loss, stockier builds, asymmetrical skulls, oblique eyes and mild to moderate mental retardation.

Edwards syndrome

Edwards Syndrome
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which is the second-most-same trisomy; Down syndrome is the most common. This is a trisomy of chromosome 18. Symptoms including mental and motor retardation and many congenital anomalies cause serious health problems. Ninety percent die in childhood, but those who live past their first birthday are usually quite healthy afterward. They have the characteristics of a clenched fist and overlapping fingers.

Patau’s syndrome

Patau's Syndrome
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Also called D-Syndrome or trisomy-13. Symptoms are somewhat similar to trisomy-18, but they do not have a distinctive hand shape.

IDIC 15

IDIC 15
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the abbreviation for Isodicentric 15 on chromosome 15; also called the following names because of various studies, but they all mean the same; LPS (15), reverse duplication 15, Extra markers, dup Inv 15, partial tetrasomy 15
Jacobsen’s syndrome

also called terminal 11q deletion interruption. This is a very rare disorder. Those affected have traditional intelligence or delicate subnormality, with poor communicative language skills. Most bleeding disorders are called Paris-trousseau syndrome.

Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY)

Klinefelter's Syndrome
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Men with Klinefelter syndrome are usually sterile and tend to have longer arms and legs and become taller than their peers.

Boys with the syndrome are often shy and calm and have a higher incidence of delayed speech and dyslexia. During puberty, without testosterone treatment, some of them can develop gynecomastia.

Turner syndrome (X, not XX or XY)

Anthropobiology - Turner syndrome
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In Turner’s syndrome, female sexual characteristics are present but retarded. People with Turner syndrome often have short stature, low hairline, normal eye features, and bone development and “give-in” chest appearance.

XYY syndrome. XYY boys are usually taller than their siblings. Like boys and girls XXY XXX, they are somewhat more likely to have learning difficulties.

Triple-X syndrome (XXX)

Anthropobiology - Triple X syndrome
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XXX girls tend to be tall and thin. They have a higher incidence of dyslexia.

Conclusion about Anthropobiology

From the above description conclusions can be made as follows:

Which plays a role in inheritance are genes and chromosomes. Genes are inherited traits on chromosomes. While a chromosome is a body/object that easily absorbs color when cell staining is done.

Inheritance according to Mendel is to follow the pattern following the observed different properties. The pattern is hereinafter referred to as Mendel’s law (Mendelism). The law in question is:

  • Mendel’s Law – I.
    The principle of separating freely (segregation). During gamete formation, each allele is passed down freely to each gamete. This occurs in monohybrid crosses
  • Mendel’s Law – II.
    The principle of pairing (merging) genes freely. During the formation of the gamete in F 1, the allele pair will look for a pair that is not the allele. For example, from crosses parents with two different properties (dihybrid) obtained F 1 genotype BBKK. In the formation of gametes, B will not be paired with b but B will be paired with K or k so that the gametes formed BK, Bk, bk, and bk.

Inheritance of traits in humans is in principle the same as inheritance in plants. Two chromosomes play a role, namely autosomes and gonosomes. Some traits are regulated by genes in autosomes and some traits are regulated by genes in gonosomes which cannot be separated in the formation of gametes (gene linked).

Abnormalities due to the linkage of this gene have traits that are more likely to appear in males because the genes are linked to the Y chromosome, which does not have a partner on the X chromosome.

Inheritance in humans is also limited by gender. This is related to the hormone presence of codominant genes, double alleles, and multiple genes.

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