The environment is formed by two components, namely the biotic environment and the abiotic environment.

In general, the community is often referred to as “environment” simply by “environment alone”. You naturally ask what is meant by the environment? The environment is a complex system that is outside the individual that affects the growth and development of organisms.

The environment consists of two components namely abiotic and biotic components:

  • Abiotic component, which consists of inanimate objects such as water, earth, air, light, sun and so on
  • Biotic component, which consists of living things such as animals, plants, and humans.

The components that exist in the environment are a unity that can not be separated and form a living system called an ecosystem. An ecosystem will ensure the survival of life if the environment can meet the minimum needs of the needs of organisms.

Also, environmental health is an important factor in social life and even is one of the determinants or determinants in the welfare of the population. Where a healthy environment is needed not only to improve the degree of public health but also for the convenience of life and improve work and study efficiency. Health problems are complex problems that are the result of various environmental problems that are natural and man-made, socio-cultural, behavioral, population, genetic, and so on.

The environment as a place of life and human interaction with other living creatures on the surface of the earth. On top of this environment, we run lives every day. To live, we need a variety of natural resources. The inner resources we need are in nature. We need a piece of land to build a house. We need a plot of land to grow rice as a food-producing material. We need air to breathe. For purposes, drinking, eating, bathing and washing, we need groundwater.

Biotic environment

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The biotic environment is all environments consisting of components of living things on the surface of the earth. Biotic environmental components, for example, plants, animals and humans.

Biotic environmental components according to their functions can be divided into three categories, namely producers, consumers, and decomposers.

1) Producers

Producers are living creatures that can produce their food through the process of photosynthesis, thus the producer group is occupied by plants that have chlorophyll.

2) Consumers

Consumer groups are living things that can utilize food processing results from producer groups. Consumer groups cannot make their food.

in biotic, Consumer groups consist of humans and animals. Animal groups are divided into herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. Herbivores are a group of plant-eating animals. Carnivores are a group of meat-eating animals. Omnivores are a group of plant and meat-eating animals.

In the food chain, herbivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous groups occupy different levels of consumers. animals that eat plants occupy the position as the first level consumers. The carnivorous group occupies the position as the second level of consumers. Omnivorous groups occupy third-level consumers.

3) Decomposition

The decomposition group is a group of organisms that play a role in deciphering the remains of dead bodies from other organisms. Decomposition groups, such as bacteria and fungi. The result of this decomposition of organisms will return to nutrients that fertilize the soil.

Abiotic Environment

The abiotic environment is all inanimate matter on the surface of the earth that is beneficial and influential in human life and other living things. Examples of abiotic environments, such as land, water, air, and sunlight.

1) Water

Water is the source of life. Water is very much needed for living things to sustain life, water is used by humans and other living things for various purposes. Human water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing. For animals, water is also used to meet drinking water needs. For aquatic plants, the role is to dissolve nutrients that are absorbed by the roots.

2) Land

The land is part of the top layer of the earth’s surface. Land in life functions as a living place for living things and provides a variety of mining materials that humans need.

Soil also provides a variety of minerals or nutrients needed by plants for the process of photosynthesis.

3) Air

Life on the surface of the earth can work well, one of them because of the air. Air covers the earth’s surface. The layer of air that surrounds the surface of the earth is called the atmosphere.

4) Sunlight

The sun is the center of the solar system and it’s the closest star to the earth. Therefore, the sun’s rays can reach the earth’s surface.

Sunlight plays a role in life on the surface of the earth. For plants, sunlight plays a role in helping photosynthesis. For humans, sunlight in daily life is used to dry clothes and help the process of making salt. Currently, sunlight has been used as an energy source for car fuel.

5) Temperature

Biological processes are affected by temperature. Mammals and poultry need energy to regulate the temperature in their bodies.

6) Salt

Salt concentration influences water balance in the organism through osmosis. Some terrestrial creatures adapt to the environment with high salt content.

7) Climate

Climate is weather conditions for a long time in an area. Climate macro includes global climate, regional and local. Microclimate includes climate in an area that is inhabited by certain communities.

Environmental problems causing health problems

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Environmental problems are old problems faced by humans until now. The following are the root causes of environmental problems and their health impacts.


Pollution is pollution caused by waste or garbage that is disposed of improperly. Usually, we associate this pollution with air pollution, even though the name of pollution is everything from water pollution, air, to soil pollution. Everything is certainly very dangerous for the environment and detrimental to human life.

Waste, in general, is waste that has physical, chemical, or biological characteristics such that it requires special handling and disposal procedures to avoid risks to human health and or other adverse effects on the environment.

Hazardous waste can result;

  • Short-term acute hazards, such as acute toxicity if swallowed, exhalation through breathing, or absorbed through the skin, cardinality or other hazards to the skin or eyes or risk of fire or explosion.
  • Long-term hazards to the environment (longterm environmental hazards). Includes chronic toxicity due to repeated exposure, carcinogenicity (in some cases it can occur due to acute exposure but has a long latent period for effect to occur), is resistant to resistant processes such as biodegradation, has the potential to contaminate underground or surface water, or aesthetically undesirable for example because of an unpleasant odor.

The air in the environment is polluted by pollutants so it is not clean anymore and is a disturbance for living things/humans around it. With current technological advances, air pollution has caused a lot of concern, especially in the industrial regions.

The cause of air pollution

Motor vehicle

All motorized vehicles that use gasoline and diesel will emit CO gas, Nitrogen Oxide, sulfur dioxide, and other particles and the rest of the combustion. When these elements reach a certain quantum they can be toxic to humans or animals. For example CO gas is toxic to blood functions, SO2 can cause respiratory system diseases.

Industrial factories

For industrial plants, which use a lot of organic and inorganic chemicals among the raw materials. As a result of its management, in addition to producing products that are useful for the benefit of human life, products that are not useful can also be released instead which can be toxic. These useless products will be discarded and can damage the environment, in the form of disruption to life and environmental sustainability if without control.

Various forms of the disease will arise in the community around the factory or on the workers themselves due to the entry of these waste substances into the body. For example with the emergence of what is called Pneumoconiosis, a group of diseases caused by the accumulation of dust in the lungs.

To determine whether the person is suffering from lung disease due to the accumulation of dust in the lungs, it is not easy if only based on abnormalities that occur in the body. There must be a history of work or the environment in which they always use or often deal with harmful dust such as having worked or had lived around a mine, in a ceramic factory and others.

Abnormalities that occur in the body depend on the amount of dust that arises in the lungs, the wider the affected lung area the more severe the symptoms, although this is not always true. Symptoms that arise, including dry cough, shortness of breath, general fatigue, weight loss, a lot of phlegm and others.

The specific treatment of this disease can be said to be nonexistent. Administration of medicines is generally only intended to reduce the suffering and symptoms that arise. The only action is that they no longer suck the dangerous dust.

Thus prevention is a matter of priority. The cost of prevention is relatively insignificant compared to the consequences of this disease.

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